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Latest RNAi Research Publications

Select cytoplasmic and membrane proteins increase the percentage of immobile ...

Select cytoplasmic and membrane proteins increase the percentage of immobile integrins but do not affect the average diffusion coefficient of mobile integrins.

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Aug 21;

Authors: Mainali D, Smith EA

Abstract
Integrins are ubiquitous adhesion receptors that are important for signaling and integrating the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. The role of cytoplasmic proteins vinculin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), and membrane proteins epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Notch in altering ?PS2C?PS integrin lateral diffusion was measured using single particle tracking (SPT) and RNA interference (RNAi). SPT measures heterogeneous diffusion properties, and RNAi selectively reduces the concentration of a target protein. After systematically reducing the concentration of vinculin, FAK, ILK, EGFR, or Notch, there was a 31 to 80 % increase in the mobile integrin fraction, indicating that these five targeted proteins (or assemblies that contain these proteins) are responsible for immobilizing a fraction of the integrins when all proteins are present at native concentrations. The average diffusion coefficient of all mobile integrins did not change after any of the RNAi treatments, and the percentage of Brownian, directed, or anomalous/constrained trajectories relative to total mobile trajectories did not change after vinculin or EGFR RNAi. However, the fraction of anomalous/constrained trajectories relative to the total mobile trajectories increased 9 to 19 % after FAK, ILK, and Notch RNAi, when the concentration of these proteins was reduced. In the case of FAK, ILK, and Notch, native concentrations of these proteins simultaneously increase the immobile fraction of integrins but decrease the diffusion constraints to those integrins that remain mobile. Comparisons of single receptor and ensemble measurements of diffusion and what is known about the effect of these proteins in altering integrin clustering are discussed.

PMID: 23963572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Application of the Concept Synthetic Lethality Toward Anticancer Therapy: A P...

Application of the Concept Synthetic Lethality Toward Anticancer Therapy: A Promise Fulfilled?

Cancer Lett. 2013 Aug 17;

Authors: Canaani D

Abstract
Back in 1997, a suggestion to apply the concept of synthetic lethality toward the development of selective, less toxic, cancer drugs and anticancer targets, was brought forward. The availability of large scale synthetic, low-molecular-weight chemical libraries seemed to lend itself to the concept. Human/mouse genome-wide siRNAs and shRNA-expressing libraries allowing high throughput screening for target genes synergistic lethal with defined human cancer aberrations, also raised high hopes of a soon to be established selective therapy. Sixteen years later, the major experimental aspects relating to the implementation of this more focused approach in cancer drug discovery, is briefly and critically reviewed.

PMID: 23962561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


The interferon response to intracellular DNA: Why so many receptors?

The interferon response to intracellular DNA: Why so many receptors?

Immunobiology. 2013 Jul 29;

Authors: Unterholzner L

Abstract
The detection of intracellular DNA has emerged to be a key event in the innate immune response to viruses and intracellular bacteria, and during conditions of sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. One of the consequences of the detection of DNA as a 'stranger' and a 'danger' signal is the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Much work has been dedicated to the elucidation of the signalling cascades that activate this DNA-induced gene expression programme. However, while many proteins have been proposed to act as sensors for intracellular DNA in recent years, none has been met with universal acceptance, and a theory linking all the recent observations is, as yet, lacking. This review presents the evidence for the various interferon-inducing DNA receptors proposed to date, and examines the hypotheses that might explain why so many different receptors appear to be involved in the innate immune recognition of intracellular DNA.

PMID: 23962476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 regulates the proliferat...

Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 regulates the proliferation of oral adenosquamous carcinoma CAL-27 cells in vitro.

Cancer Cell Int. 2013 Aug 20;13(1):83

Authors: Zhang B, Li KY, Chen HY, Pan SD, Jiang LC, Wu YP, Liu SW

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma is very poor due to local recurrence and metastasis. This study explores the molecular events involved in oral carcinoma with the goal of developing novel therapeutic strategies. The mitotic spindle is a complex mechanical apparatus required for the accurate segregation of sister chromosomes during mitosis. Spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1 (SKA1) is a microtubule-binding subcomplex of the outer kinetochore that is essential for proper chromosome segregation. In recent years, much attention has been focused on determining how SKA proteins interact with each other, as well as their biological role in cancer cells. However, the precise role of SKA1 in oral carcinoma remains unknown.
METHODS: In order to investigate the role of SKA1 in oral cancer, we employed lentivirus-mediated shRNA to silence SKA1 expression in the CAL-27 human oral adenosquamous carcinoma cell line.
RESULTS: Depletion of SKA1 in CAL-27 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. These results strongly demonstrate that reduced SKA1 protein levels may cause inhibition of tumor formation. The shRNA-mediated depletion of SKA1 also led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report to show that SKA1 plays an important role in the progression of oral adenosqamous carcinoma. Thus, silencing of SKA1 by RNAi might be a potential therapy for this disease.

PMID: 23962337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


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