Protein Concentration Determinatino using the Bradford Assay Method
Materials for Bradford Assay
1. Reagent: The assay reagent is made by dissolving 100 mg of Coomassie Blue G250 in 50 mL of 95% ethanol. The solution is then mixed with 100 mL of 85% phosphoric acid and made up to 1 L with distilled water. The reagent should be filtered through Whatman no. 1 filter paper and then stored in an amber bottle at room temperature. It is stable for several weeks. However, during this time dye may precipitate from solution and so the stored reagent should be filtered before use.
2. Protein standard . Bovine γ-globulin at a concentration of 1 mg/mL (100 µg/mL for the microassay) in distilled water is used as a stock solution. This should be stored frozen at –20oC. Since the moisture content of solid protein may vary during storage, the precise concentration of protein in the standard solution should be determined from its absorbance at 280 nm. The absorbance of a 1 mg/mL solution of γ-globulin, in a 1-cm light path, is 1.35. The corresponding values for two alternative protein standards, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin, are 0.66 and 0.75, respectively.
3. Plastic and glassware used in the assay should be absolutely clean and detergent free. Quartz (silica) spectrophotometer cuvettes should not be used, as the dye binds to this material. Traces of dye bound to glassware or plastic can be removed by rinsing with methanol or detergent solution.
Standard Bradford Assay Method
1. Pipet between 10 and 100 µg of protein in 100 µL total volume into a test tube. If the approximate sample concentration is unknown, assay a range of dilutions (1, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000). Prepare duplicates of each sample.
2. For the calibration curve, pipet duplicate volumes of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µL of 1 mg/mL γ-globulin standard solution into test tubes, and make each up to 100 µL with distilled water. Pipet 100 µL of distilled water into a further tube to provide the reagent blank.
3. Add 5 mL of protein reagent to each tube and mix well by inversion or gentle vortexmixing. Avoid foaming, which will lead to poor reproducibility.
4. Measure the A595 of the samples and standards against the reagent blank between 2 min and 1 h after mixing. The 100 µg standard should give an A595 value of about 0.4. The standard curve is not linear, and the precise absorbance varies depending on the age of the assay reagent. Consequently, it is essential to construct a calibration curve for each set of assays.
Microassay Method This form of the assay is more sensitive to protein. Consequently, it is useful when the amount of the unknown protein is limited (see also Note 9). 1. Pipet duplicate samples containing between 1 and 10 µg in a total volume of 100 µL into 1.5-mL polyethylene microfuge tubes. If the approximate sample concentration is unknown, assay a range of dilutions (1, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000).
2. For the calibration curve, pipet duplicate volumes of 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µL of 100 µg/mL γ-globulin standard solution into microfuge tubes, and adjust the volume to 100 µL with water. Pipet 100 µL of distilled water into a tube for the reagent blank.
3. Add 1 mL of protein reagent to each tube and mix gently, but thoroughly.
4. Measure the absorbance of each sample between 2 and 60 min after addition of the protein reagent. The A595 value of a sample containing 10 µg γ-globulin is 0.45.
see also: Bradford Protein Assay
References for Bradford Assay
Modified from protocol by Nicholas J. Kruger.
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