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Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury.

Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Research Abstract Details 

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  • Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Abstract Text:

    james w grauJames W Grau,eric d crownEric D Crown,adam r fergusonAdam R Ferguson,stephanie n washburnStephanie N Washburn,michelle a hookMichelle A Hook,rajesh c mirandaRajesh C Miranda,

    Using spinally transected rats, research has shown that neurons within the L4-S2 spinal cord are sensitive to response-outcome (instrumental) relations. This learning depends on a form of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated plasticity. Instrumental training enables subsequent learning, and this effect has been linked to the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Rats given uncontrollable stimulation later exhibit impaired instrumental learning, and this deficit lasts up to 48 hr. The induction of the deficit can be blocked by prior training with controllable shock, the concurrent presentation of a tonic stimulus that induces antinociception, or pretreatment with an NMDA or gamma-aminobutyric acid-A antagonist. The expression of the deficit depends on a kappa opioid. Uncontrollable stimulation enhances mechanical reactivity (allodynia), and treatments that induce allodynia (e.g., inflammation) inhibit learning. In intact animals, descending serotonergic neurons exert a protective effect that blocks the adverse consequences of uncontrollable stimulation. Uncontrollable, but not controllable, stimulation impairs the recovery of function after a contusion injury.

    Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Publishing Authors By Initials

    jw grauJW Grau,ed crownED Crown,ar fergusonAR Ferguson,sn washburnSN Washburn,ma hookMA Hook,rc mirandaRC Miranda,

    For similar nervous system diseases: central nervous system diseases: spinal cord diseases: spinal cord injuries research abstracts see: nervous system diseases: central nervous system diseases: spinal cord diseases: spinal cord injuries research

    PUBMED ID PMID:

    MEDLINE DATE:

    Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Journal Published:

    PUBLICATION TYPE: Review

    Journal: Behavioral and cognitive neuroscience reviews

    VOLUME: 5

    Page Numbers: 191-239

    Journal Abbreviation:

    ISSN: 1534-5823

    DAY: 3

    MONTH: Dec

    YEAR: 2006

    Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Information

    Number of References:

    LANGUAGE: eng

    NlmUniqueID: 101120119

    Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Keywords Mesh Terms:

    KEYWORDS: Spinal Cord Injuries

    MESH TERMS: rehabilitation

    Chemical & Substance for Abstract: Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury. Information

    Substance Name: N-Methylaspartate

    Registry Number: 6384-92-5

    Grant and Affiliation Information for Instrumental learning within the spinal cord: underlying mechanisms and implications for recovery after injury.

    AFFILIATION: Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4235, USA. j-grau@tamu.edu

    Country: United States

    United States Research PublicationUnited States Research Publication

    AGENCY: United States NINDS

    GRANT: NS41548

    ACRONYM: NS

    MEDLINETA: Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev

    REFSOURCE:

    DATABASENAME:

    ACCESSION NUMBER:

    Number Hits: 0

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