EMS Mutagenesis of Arabidopsis Seed Protocol EMS is used at concentrations that induce multiple point mutations in each plant, such that mutant alleles of a specific locus are found at a rate of ~1 in 2000-5000 M2 plants. This high rate of mutagenesis makes possible the screening of relatively few plants to find those with the phenotype of interest, a particular advantage if the screen is laborious or if only a small number of genes mutate to the required phenotype.
Forward Genetics in Arabidopsis: Finding Mutations that Cause Particular Phenotypes Protocol Forward genetics is used to identify genes that are involved in particular biological processes. For example, genes required for disease resistance can be found by identifying mutants with reduced or increased disease resistance, genes that control flower development can be identified by searching for mutants with altered flower morphology, and genes encoding enzymes for tryptophan biosynthesis can be identified by searching for mutants that require exogenous tryptophan for growth.
Gene Expression and Protein Localization in Arabidopsis Protocols Protocols for gene expression and protein localization in Arabidopsis. Includes: Detection of the native protein; Detection of a recombinant version; Immunofluorescence detection in Arabidopsis protoplasts; Isolation of Arabidopsis seedling protoplasts; Subcellular localization of GUS-fusion proteins in Arabidopsis seedlings; Localization of Arabidopsis proteins with GUS in situ enzyme assay.
Isolation of Arabidopsis Nuclei and Measurement of Gene Transcription Rates Protocol Protocol for the isolation of Arabidopsis nuclei and measurement of gene transcription rates using nuclear run-on assays. Plant materials are ground in hexylene glycol-based buffers and highly enriched nuclear fractions are obtained using Percoll density gradients. Standard and small-scale protocols are presented, along with a tested method for nuclear run-on assays. The entire process may be completed within 3 days.
Precision Engineering of Plant Gene Loci by Homologous Recombination Cloning in Escherichia Coli Protocol for precision engineering of plant gene loci by homologous recombination cloning in Escherichia coli. Includes: Key steps in the EL250 RED-HR locus rescue and engineering procedure; Primer design and plasmid constructs; AtSTM gap-repair construct; Targeting construct backbone; Preparation of electrocompetent EL250 cells; Transformation of BAC F24o1 and induction of recombinogenic function in EL250; AtSTM locus rescue from BAC F24o1 by gap-repair HR.
Screening DNA Pools for T-DNA Insertions in Arabidopsis Genes Protocol A powerful way to identify a mutation in the gene of interest and to test mutant plants for phenotypes that are predicted to result from loss of function of that gene is by PCR screening. Pools of insertion lines are screened using one primer corresponding to the gene of interest and one primer corresponding to the end of the insertion element. The synthesis of a product indicates the presence of an insertion in the gene of interest.
Setting Up Arabidopsis Crosses Protocol Arabidopsis naturally self-pollinates, the generation of cross-progeny requires some intervention by the investigator. This protocol describes the generation and collection of seeds by crossing suitable Arabidopsis parent plants.
Whole Mount Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) of Repetitive DNA Sequences on Interphase Protocol for whole mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of repetitive DNA sequences on interphase nuclei of the small cruciferous plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Includes: Seed sterilization and germination; Tissue fixation; Labeling of the probe DNA; Pretreatment; In situ hybridization; Pre-absorption of antibodies; Posthybridization washes; Immunocytochemical detection; Direct detection; Indirect detection; Staining and mounting; Fluorescence microscopy.